Gemstones list of precious stones

There are many wonderful gemstones to choose from when buying a ring. This list of gem stones has been created to help you learn more about some of the most popular gemstones. For additional information, please click on the name of the gemstone or on “more” at the end of each exerpt.


Unlike other gemstones, each Agate gemstone is unique to itself – even when cut from within the same area. It’s distinguishing elements comprise banding or swirls of different colors or multi-colored translucency more


Alexandrites are beautiful color-change varieties of the Chrysoberyl family of gemstones and are very rare and expensive gemstones. The Alexandrite possesses almost mystical qualities due to the way its colors change from green to red and purplish reds when light is reflected upon them. more


Derived from the Greek language, the name Amethyst means “not drunken” – which is probably an apt description for a gemstone whose color can resemble wine.
The color purple is traditionally associated with royalty and the deep purple colors of an amethyst stone certainly give it a rich and regal appearance more


The name of these beautiful gemstones with hues of light blues to blue-greens, was aptly derived from the Latin language and means “water of the sea”. The Aquamarine is another form of Beryl with trace s of Chromium, Vanadium, Iron and Manganese. more


Pure beryl is a colorless mineral, which can become colored due to traces of other minerals. Emeralds, Aquamarines and Morganites are all forms of Beryl – as are Golden Beryls and Red Beryls with the same name. more


A mainly dark green stone comprised of chalcedony and with strands or specks of red jasper running through it. Chalcedony originates from a combination of quartz and moganite and Jasper from iron oxide. Bloodstone is occasionally found with yellow inclusions called plasma. more


This rich colored gemstone is a type of chalcedony quartz that comes in bright red, orangey reds and red-browns. The Carnelian red is obtained from the iron oxide within the stone. The dark brown-red color is often referred to as Sard, although both share the same chemical composition and are derived from Silica with traces of iron oxide. The gemstones vary from translucent to opaque. more

Cat’s Eye:

Cat’s Eye belongs to a family of gemstones called Chrysoberyl, that also includes the Alexandrite. This translucent gemstone has tiny fibrous inclusions that reflect a streak of light, giving it the appearance of a cat’s eye. more


Chrysoberyl, as a gemstone in its own right is relatively unknown. This is partly because of its confusion with another gemstone family, Beryl. Natural Chryoberyl gemstones exhibit yellow, yellow-green or brownish colors and have a transparent quality. more


The beautiful yellow Citrine is a variety of Macrocrystalline Quartz – a family of Quartz also shared with other well known gemstones, such as Amethyst, Rose Quartz, Smoky Quartz, Aventurine and Cat’s Eye. more


These magnificent gems are a crystalline form of elemental carbon and are the hardest substance found in nature – as measured on the Mohs scale. White diamonds are the most well known and very popular for engagement rings. Diamonds are assessed for quality in terms of their cut, clarity, carat and color. more


Trace amounts of chromium – and occasionally, vanadium – are responsible for the emerald’s green color. Most natural emeralds contain inclusions (flaws) and surface breaking fissures. Because of this, nearly all emeralds are treated by submerging them in an oil bath to enhance their apparent clarity. more


The garnet comprises a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age for use as adornments and for abrasives. The gemstone was particularly popular in 18th and 19th century Europe when Bohemian garnet jewelry was very much in fashion. more

Lapis Lazuli:

Ranging in colors from bright blues through to royal blues and midnight blues, this mystical looking gem stone has been used in jewelry and other ornaments for many thousands of years. There is evidence that it was used in prehistoric times and archeological digs Greece and Egypt have found many artifacts where this gemstone was used. One of the most famous uses of lapis lazuli is found in King Tutanhamun’s golden mask. more


The Moonstone has a milky white, luminous glowing appearance with different hues of blue and yellow. The gemstone, belongs to Feldspar group of minerals that make up 60% of the Earth’s crust. more

A black and white gemstone from the Chalcedony family that includes the Agates, Bloodstones and Carnelians. The Onyx has a red and white variant called Sardonyx or Sard that is brownish red and white. more


Whilst the composition of pearls is primarily the mineral calcium carbonate, they are quite different in the way they have evolved compared with other mineral based gemstones. A pearl is a hard, rounded object produced by specific types of molluscs and oysters. more


This gemstone is also known as Olivine, because of its olive green coloring. The Peridot is a magnesium iron silicate that comprises two minerals: fayalit and forsterite. Fayalite is iron rich and Fosterite Magnesium rich. more


These wonderfully rich red gemstones are a variety of a mineral called Corundum. The deep red color of a ruby is due to the presence of a small amount of chromium that gives it its rich red coloration. more


Sapphires belong to a class of minerals called Corundum, which is a form of Aluminium Oxide. Blue Sapphires occur as the result of iron and titanium being present in the Corundum, whilst colors such as yellow, green, gray, black, purple and pink are due to other trace minerals – and in the case of pink sapphire – due to trace elements like Nitrogen. more

Steeped in history, the Spinel has been used has been an important gemstone to both royalty and to ancient mariners for many centuries. Whilst this beautiful red stone is currently viewed as the poor relation of the Ruby, it has not always been so. “The Daily News” in 1892 referred to Spinels as gemstones that “frequently usurp the dignity of a true ruby” more


This stunningly beautiful gemstone is a relatively recent discovery, having been accidentally found in Tanzania in the 1960’s. The Tanzanite , named after the area in which it was found, is a deep blue color gemstone with purplish hues. more

Tiger’s Eye:
Bring the tiger out in yourself with this silky lustrous gemstone that, due to its underlying fibrous qualities, creates the impression of a tiger looking out at you. The Tiger’s Eye was worn by ancient people to protect themselves from evil and illness and in more recent times it has been used for success in business and to attract money – well that sounds good if it works! more

This gemstone is a silicate composed mainly of aluminium and fluorine. Most Topaz stonesare colorless, and of little commercial value, but the colored forms are much sought after. Topaz colors range from yellow to orange and brown. more

Scientifically, Tourmaline is not a single mineral, but a complex silicate of boron and aluminium that contains varying amounts of iron, magnesium, manganese, calcium, sodium and potassium. It is a gemstone that is quite distinct from other gem species. more

An opaque, blue-green mineral that is formed by moisture seeping through mineral rich soil containing Copper, Aluminium Phosphates and Iron and down to crevasses and gaps in rocks and clay, where it develops into Turquoise over millions of years. more

Since the introduction of the artificial Cubic Zirconia there has been some confusion between it and the Natural Zircon. However the mineral compositions of these two stones are quite different, with the Natural Zircon being composed of the mineral zirconium silicate and the artificial Cubic Zirconia being made from zirconium oxide. more

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